Resources for Young Scholars

Young scholars can refer to two excellent resources in order to better familiarize themselves with this year’s conference topic:

1. The African Mobile Story 

2. Reconceptualizing Development in the Global Information Age

More information on the book’s chapters can be found here: Reconceptualizing Development in the Global Information Age.

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CPR South Conference: 2015

Policy Brief Cover

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PH regulator to measure internet service performance

LIRNEasia participated in a series of public consultations and technical working group meetings conducted by the Philippines’ National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) for the draft memorandum order on broadband quality of service, which is expected to be issued within the year. 

This article originally appeared in TelecomAsia. Reposted here with permission.

The National Telecommunications Commission is close to issuing a memorandum order that will update a previous issuance on minimum speed of broadband connections. But this time, the policy is targeted at measuring internet quality of service over setting minimum standards.

The order is the result of months of public consultations and technical working group meetings attended by big and small telcos, consumer groups and think tanks, and concerned government agencies such as the departments of justice, and trade and industry.

If and when NTC issues this memo order on broadband QoS, it is hoped that Philippine internet would improve from its abysmal state, ranking only second to war-torn Afghanistan in average download speed. The QoS measurement results might also help give a clearer picture of the problem areas that need to be addressed by government, service providers, and consumers.

The initial working draft was based on the proposal of Democracy.net.ph, formed by a group of concerned Filipino netizens who lobbied against data capping back in 2011. The Netdems, or founders of Democracy.net.ph, proposes to set minimum standards for data rate reliability, service reliability, and overall reliability, as well as “best efforts” offers. It also wants to ensure that consumers are properly informed by ISPs of their service offers and to establish rules for refunds and rebates in case of subpar service.

The draft now contains recommendations from LIRNEasia, a regional ICT policy think tank, who has been conducting broadband QoS experience studies in the Philippines and other Asian countries since 2011. The think tank proposes that NTC officially identify the diagnostic tool that will measure ISP performance metrics, which inclue throughput (download and upload speeds), latency, packet loss, and jitter. It also suggests that local ISPs publish their average speeds per location (e.g., city level) to allow consumers to make an informed choice. LIRNEasia found that Philippine ISPs offered the lowest value for money in terms of cost and actual download speed in tests conducted in Q1 2014.

In at least two public hearings, the two dominant telcos, PLDT and Globe, recommend that the NTC measure and monitor only the throughput and data volume, as these are the only metrics promised to subscribers. They also propose that internet QoS tests be done only within the ISP’s network where the variables are within their control.

However, measuring QoS from within the network may not necessarily reflect the actual service experienced by the end user. In the Philippines, for example, where a lot of websites are hosted abroad, it would be relevant to measure latency or round-trip-time vis-à-vis an international server. In countries that use probes (e.g., RIPE Atlas) or where the regulator provides testing equipment (e.g., SamKnows) or software (e.g., M-Lab’s network diagnostic tool) to volunteers, the tests are done from the end users’ location. This approach will most likely gauge the actual quality of connection in the last mile.

The importance of a sound methodology can not be overemphasized. A large dataset should be able to offset the effects of the uncontrolled variables and anomalies in the internet QoS tests. LIRNEasia proposes that the NTC-mandated diagnostic tool also be made available to the public, so that a wider area and population is tested.

The Private Association of Philippine Telephone Companies (PAPTELCO) representing the small telcos raises a valid concern about countryside resellers, or those who rely on the infrastructure of the big telcos, whose business might get negatively affected by the tests and publication of results. It urges the NTC to look into the lack of capacity, especially in remote rural areas, which would affect the performance of small providers.

Ideally, all service providers should comply with some form of QoS standards. However, there are ways to take into consideration those who serve a small subscriber base or missionary areas. In some countries, like Singapore, broadband QoS metrics for compliance are imposed on the large ISPs only, or those who serve at least 10% of the overall subscriber base. In the Philippines’ case, the urban centers might be a good place to start the internet QoS measurement where the big players operate.

This is a crucial juncture for NTC, as with many other regulators worldwide who are struggling with broadband policies, which include striking a balance between encouraging investment to expand access and maintaining quality of service for consumers. The proposals from the service providers and advocacy groups both have merits, and their recommendations have been discussed exhaustively over the past seven months. However the NTC decides, one thing is clear: this policy is long overdue, and it could only serve to improve Philippine internet.

 

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Young Scholar Awards 2015: Extension of deadline

Extension of deadline for applications to 23 March 2015

2015 Young Scholars’ Seminar
Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence: Yuan Ze University, Taiwan

 24 – 25 August 2015

(CPRsouth 2015 conference : 26 – 28 August 2015)

Full application details may be found here

Submit your online application

Kindly direct all enquiries to Ondine Bello: 

admin@researchictafrica.net or info@CPRsouth.org

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CALL FOR APPLICATIONS: 2015 Young Scholar Awards

THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF ICT GOVERNANCE AND PRACTICE – CONVERGENCE AND BIG DATA

Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence: Yuan Ze University, Taiwan

Conference dates: 26 – 28 August 2015

2015 Young Scholars’ Seminar: 24 – 25 August 2015

Deadline for applications: 23 March 2015

Following highly successful Afro-Asian conferences in Port Louis, Mauritius (2012) and Mysore, India (2013), CPRafrica and CPRsouth formally merged under the banner of CPRsouth in 2014.  This first joint conference was hosted at Maropeng in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa. CPRsouth 2015 will be hosted at the Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence at Yuan Ze University in Taipei, Taiwan.

30 Young Scholars from Africa and the Asia-Pacific region will be selected to participate in a tutorial programme taught by recognised scholars and practitioners from Africa and Asia. They will then attend CPRsouth 2015. Tutorials are scheduled to be held on the 24th and 25th of August 2015, prior to main CPRsouth 2015 conference.

Who will qualify?

  • Masters/PhD students in Economics, Public policy, Communications and Journalism
  • Officers of government/regulatory agencies undertaking ICT policy research, developing/gathering indicators (monitoring and evaluation)
  • Staff of private companies in the communication industries working in regulatory affairs
  • Officers in NGOs/INGOs working in policy and regulation
  • Researchers from think tanks, university research centres
  • Journalists covering communication public policy and regulation

Seminar

The seminar will cover a number of topics over the two days such as:

  • policy analysis using supply-side or demand-side data;
  • ICT impact analysis;
  • convergence, net neutrality;
  • funding broadband network extension, open access networks, spectrum;
  • sector and competition regulation;
  • research to policy interventions;
  • Internet governance – privacy, surveillance, human rights online; and
  • introduction to big data, open data.

Previous tutorial presentations can be accessed at http://www.cprsouth.org/

Application deadline: 23 March 2015

Application guidelines

Applications should be submitted via this link by 23 March 2015, and must contain the following:

  1. one-page curriculum vitae; and
  2. one-page write-up outlining why you wish to become an African or Asia-Pacific based expert capable of contributing to ICT related policy and regulatory reform in the region

Applicants’ write-ups and biographies should be in a single word document, and named as follows:  CPRsouth2015_YoungScholar_ApplicantLastName.

Kindly note: Late applications and applications that do not conform to the prescribed format above will automatically be disqualified.

Review Criteria

Applications will be reviewed according to the following criteria:

  1. content of application;
  2. evidence of interest in, and commitment to, policy-relevant research for Africa or the Asia-Pacific region;
  3. quality of writing; and
  4. gender and country representation

The selection committee may contact your supervisor or mentor before making the final selections.

Candidates selected to participate in the tutorial programme must:

  • provide a one-page research proposal upon acceptance onto the tutorial programme
  • participate in all tutorial sessions
  • participate in the entire CPRsouth 2015 conference

Funding

Selected young scholars who are passport holders of, and travelling from, low and middle income countries within the Asia Pacific and Africa (as classified by the World Bank http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications/country-and-lending-groups#Low_income) will be provided with:

  • lowest-cost economy airfare to conference destination (less USD 150 registration fee);
  • ground transfers between the conference venue and airport; and
  • twin sharing accommodation on bed and breakfast basis, 5 lunches and 1 dinner for the duration of the conference and tutorials (24 – 28 August 2015). Not all meals are covered.

The registration fee for young scholars to attend the conference and tutorials is USD 150, and airfares will be reimbursed less this registration fee.  Participants will be required to cover:

  • transport to and from airports in their home countries;
  • visa fees (if any);
  • meals not provided; and
  • any other incidental costs

 As the registration fee is so low and should be met personally even if there is no institutional support for attendance of the course and conference, note that only under exceptional circumstances of extreme financial hardship may the organisers consider a waiver of the conference registration fee. Such waivers will be considered on a case-by-case basis and only where a scholar would otherwise be prevented from attending the YS programme and conference.

Visas

Letters of invitation will be provided for purposes of visa applications after participant selections have been made. Participants are responsible for securing heir own visas to enter Taiwan, and are strongly advised to initiate visa approval procedures immediately on receipt of confirmation of their participation.

Kindly direct all enquiries to Ondine Bello: admin@researchictafrica.net  or info@CPRsouth.org

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New deadline for CPRsouth 2015 abstracts: 05 January 2015

The CPRsouth 2015 deadline for abstracts/paper proposals has been extended until the 5th of January 2015.  Kindly note that authors who have already submitted proposals are invited to revise and resubmit their entries by the January 2015 deadline should they wish to do so.

Detailed information on the call for abstracts/paper proposals for CPRsouth 2015 can be found on the CPRsouth  homepage.

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CPRsouth 2015: Call for abstracts/paper proposals

THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF ICT GOVERNANCE AND PRACTICE – CONVERGENCE AND BIG DATA

Hosted by the Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence Yuan Ze University, Taiwan

26 – 28 August 2015

 CALL FOR ABSTRACTS/PAPER PROPOSALS

CPRsouth 2015

Deadline for submissions: 15 December 2014

Abstracts/paper proposals on ICT policy and regulation research carried out in the Asia Pacific and Africa, or relevant to the Asia-Pacific and Africa, may be submitted for review and acceptance.

 Paper proposals should be submitted electronically at:

 http://www.cprsouth.org

on or before 15 December 2014

Submit your abstract here

______________________

Communication Policy Research: south (CPRsouth) intends to build human capacity in the South by reinforcing and developing the knowledge, skills, and commitment of ICT policy and regulation scholars in the region or with substantial interest in the region. The overall objective is to create policy intellectuals capable of informed and effective intervention in ICT policy and regulatory processes in specific country contexts.

Content

The conference will accommodate approximately 30 paper presenters from Africa and the Asia-Pacific over the two-and-a-half-day conference in Taipei, Taiwan from 26 – 28 August 2015.  The conference includes sessions on cutting-edge developments on policy and regulation in the South and discussion of the research-policy interface. Each of the paper sessions will be chaired by a senior scholar and include a discussant, who will provide substantive comments on the papers.

Submission Guidelines

Paper proposals should be submitted electronically at: http://www.cprsouth.org on or before 15 December 2014

Submissions consist of a 500-word paper proposal with references, and a one-page curriculum vitae should be submitted together with the proposal

The document should be in MS office word format and named according to the following format: CPRsouth2014_abstract&Bio_YourLastName.doc

The review criteria and template for paper proposals can be downloaded from

http://www.cprsouth.org/review-criteria-and-template

Abstracts/ paper proposals should be classifiable with at least three keywords from the list below:

Access | Applications | Authorization and licensing | Broadband | Business models | Citizen | Civil society | Cloud computing | Competition | Conflict | Connectivity | Consumer | Content | Convergence | Cooperation | Demand | Disaster | Disability | Domestic | Economy | Ecosystem | Education | Efficiency | Emerging markets | Environment | Governance | Growth | Inclusion | Indicators | Information | Infrastructure | Innovation | International | Institutions | Judiciary | Knowledge | Legislation | Markets | Media | Micro, small and medium enterprises | Mobile money | Monopoly | Networks | Performance | Policy | Political economy | Poverty | Productivity | Property| Public goods | Oligopoly | Reforms | Regional | Regulation | Services | Spectrum | Strategy | Telecom reforms | Transparency | Universal access | Universal services.

Authors of shortlisted abstracts will be notified on or before the 30th of January 2015 and will be invited to submit full papers for final review by the 30th of March 2015.

Final papers selected for presentation at CPRsouth will be uploaded onto the Social Science Research Network (SSRN) database. Please note that the submission of the final paper implies consent to upload them onto the SSRN database. The slides of the presentations and the policy brief will also be uploaded onto http://www.cprsouth.org

 Funding

Selected paper presenters who are passport holders of, and travelling from, low, lower-middle and upper middle income countries within the Asia Pacific and Africa (as classified by the World Bank http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications/country-and-lending-groups#Low_income) will be provided with:

  • lowest-cost economy airfare to conference destination (less USD 200 registration fee);
  • ground transfers between the conference venue and airport; and
  • twin sharing accommodation on bed and breakfast basis, 3 lunches and 1 dinner for the duration of the conference (26 – 28 August 2015). Not all meals are covered.

The registration fee for the conference is USD 200, and airfares will be reimbursed less this registration fee.  Participants will be required to cover:

  • transport to and from airports in their home countries;
  • visa fees (if any);
  • meals not provided; and
  • any other incidental costs

 Kindly note that under exceptional circumstances conference organisers may consider a waiver of the conference registration fee. Such waivers will be considered on a case-by-case basis and only where an author would otherwise be prevented from presenting his or her paper at the conference.)

Visas

Letters of invitation will be provided for purposes of visa applications after participant selections have been made. Participants are responsible for securing heir own visas to enter Taiwan, and are strongly advised to initiate visa approval procedures immediately on receipt of confirmation of their participation.

Kindly direct all enquiries to: info@cprsouth.org or admin@researchictafrica.net

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The myth of broadband in the Philippines

This article is a repost of my blog which originally appears in Telecom Asia, with their kind permission.

The Philippines’ two major telcos, PLDT and Globe Telecom, are on an infrastructure investment roll. In July, PLDT announced completing its domestic fiber optic network worth 700-million pesos in Bohol province. In August, PLDT signed on to the Asia-Africa-Europe 1 (AAE-1) project, joining 17 other operators to deploy a 25,000km subsea cable system. Meanwhile, Globe is investing $80 million in a submarine cable directly connecting Southeast Asia and the United States (SEA-US) slated for completion in 2016.

Year after year, PLDT and Globe spend billions of pesos in capital expenditure to expand and improve their domestic backbones and international connections. In 2013, Globe and PLDT each reported a capex of about 29 billion pesos ($663.3 million). The year before that, PLDT alone spent over 36 billion in capex, which, one expert notes, had not fallen below 20 billion pesos since 2006.

This is all good news, of course. But despite the hundreds of millions of dollars reportedly allocated by telcos to expand and improve connectivity, ordinary Filipino internet users are left scratching their heads asking: Why is my internet still slow?

The telcos can easily dismiss these anecdotes as subjective. Unsatisfied customers do tend to exaggerate their user experience after all. But there are so many diagnostic tools out there that can quantify the customer’s frustration and agitation.

In the first quarter of 2014, I carried out a broadband quality of service experience (QoSE) test of Philippine ISPs as part of a study by regional ICT policy think tank LIRNEasia. Using the AT Tester, a diagnostic tool for QoSE jointly designed with IIT Madras, I conducted tests using basic data plans being offered by the country’s three major ISPs (Smart, Globe and Sun).

The QoSE tests were conducted on multiple days (2 weekdays and 2 weekends) and at multiple time slots (including both peak and off-peak hours) throughout the day. It uses different domains (local ISP, national and international servers) and measures six metrics, including download and upload speeds, latency, jitter, packet loss and availability.

By far, the AT Tester is incomparable because of this rigorous methodology. As a result, LIRNEasia’s QoSE-based research has been used to inform the policies of regulators in countries like India, Mauritius, and Maldives. The AT Tester method is currently being implemented by the Bhutanese regulator.

The findings of the Philippine QoSE tests were expected, but nevertheless still disappointing.

The best performing among the three ISPs delivered only 21% of actual versus advertised speed on average. This same ISP also offered at least 256 Kbps download speed (generally accepted definition of broadband) only 67% of the whole time it was tested, falling short of the required 80% service reliability.

The Broadband Commission defines the core concepts of broadband as an “always-on service” with high capacity “able to carry lots of data per second.” While there is no official definition of broadband locally, the Philippine Digital Strategy 2011-2016 defines broadband internet service as 2 Mbps download speed.

Finally, like the last nail in the coffin, Philippine ISPs performed the worst in terms of value for money when compared to select providers in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The highest value given by any of the three Philippine ISPs tested was a measly 22 Kbps per US dollar. This figure is too low when compared to similar mobile broadband ISPs that offer 173 Kbps per dollar in Jakarta, Indonesia and 445 Kbps per dollar in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

These results have huge implications on truth in advertising, consumer welfare, and the need for appropriate regulation.

Since the connections are intermittent and average download speeds too low, should PH ISPs stop selling these basic data plans as broadband internet service? As Prof. Rohan Samarjiva of LIRNEasia asks, “What is the point of applying definitions to advertising, when real performance suggests that many operators… do not offer true broadband?”

Finally, the overused and abused argument that “internet is just a value-added service hence deregulated” stops where consumer welfare begins. Broadband internet should be treated like any paid service; there is no sound and legitimate reason (legal or otherwise) not to make providers accountable for the quality of service that customers pay for. And if there was any law that “prohibits” regulation to ensure the protection of consumer rights… Never mind, no such thing anyway.

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Peer(ing) Pressure: Why PLDT should give in (Part 3 of a 3-part series)

This article is a repost of my blog which originally appears in Telecom Asia, with their kind permission.

Since the May-28 Senate hearing investigating the Philippines’ slow and expensive internet, local IP peering has gained traction and media has since caught on. This articleby a popular online news site garnered 4,000 shares on Facebook and 220 retweets on Twitter. What this says is that people are eager to understand the problem and know about possible solutions, no matter how highly technical they may be.

A few years ago, the National Telecommunications Commission had tried to issue an order mandating telcos and ISPs to peer via the Philippine Open Internet Exchange (PHOpenIX) being operated by the Department of Science and Technology’s (DOST) Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI).

But the country’s incumbent telco and largest ISP PLDT opposed the order, arguing that ASTI may not have the capability to “maintain security and service quality.” Three years hence, the proposal has resurfaced at the recent Senate hearing. This time, second largest telco Globe issued an official statement supporting NTC’s proposal of mandatory peering.

Various studies suggest that peering should not be forced upon ISPs and has to remain voluntary. But there are cases like Italy where government intervened to make peering happen. Regardless of these debates, however, there seems to be an agreement on the benefits of peering to all players involved. And with quality improving and costs decreasing, customers ultimately stand to gain from the invisible handshake among ISPs that is peering.

Below I continue my conversation with Wilson Chua of Bitstop.ph, the first local ISP to peer through the PHOpenIX, the only publicly funded, neutral, and non-profit internet exchange point in the country.

TA: What benefits has Bitstop, as a small local ISP, gained from peering?

Bitstop has saved a lot of bandwidth on both directions of the traffic.

For our hosted clients, we have seen increasing bandwidth going out of our center into the PHOpenIX. This translates to savings of about 35% in outgoing international bandwidth.

For our internet clients, we have seen a huge spike in incoming traffic from YouTube and Google caches served from inside the PHOpenIX. This also translates to savings of about 45% in incoming international bandwidth.

TA: How has your customers benefited from Bitstop peering to PHOpenIX?

They have all benefitted from this with faster access times and more resiliency. However, since most of these network efficiencies occur behind the scene, they may not be aware of what or why this is happening.

Take the case of www.krisaquino.net (website of a local celebrity who’s also the sister of the Philippine president). This website couldn’t be reliably hosted in the Philippines without the support of the PHOpenIX.  The website owners are just happy with the faster connection times, lower bounce rates and longer times on-site of their visitors. Their metrics are achievable because of peering.  But they may not be aware of how PHOpenIX helps to make this happen.

TA: Are there any downsides to peering?

Peering will primarily negatively affect the big international circuit vendors. As peering increases, the amount of international traffic decreases. They will lose short-term international revenues. This sheds some light into why some telcos are hesitant to support local peering.

You see, every bandwidth that is routed to peering exchanges is bandwidth saved from having to transit the international links. See below the speeds listed from the website stats that each of the exchanges published publicly.

  • Korea’ KINX saves about 562 gb EACH SECOND
  • Japan’s JIX saves 250 gb EACH SECOND
  • HongKong’s HKIX saves around 340 gb EACH SECOND
  • Amsterdam’s AMIX saves a whopping 2,800 gb EACH SECOND

And these are the countries that have superfast internet speeds. Do you see the correlation between peering and Internet speeds? Faster local links, less congested international links?

Also when the PHOpenIX increases bandwidth usage to 100 gbps, the projected savings to the Philippines is 100,000 mbps * 100 USD = USD 10 million or about 450 million pesos a month. Let’s peg it at PHP 0.5 billion a month. This does not even count the collateral, downstream benefits to the rest of Philippine society yet.

Continued from Part 2 – “Nothing to fear in peering”: A conversation with Bitsop.ph

 

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Nothing to fear in peering: A conversation with Bitstop.ph (Part 2 of a 3-part series)

This article is a repost of my blog which originally appears in Telecom Asia, with their kind permission.

Since the May-28 Senate hearing investigating the Philippines’ slow and expensive internet, local IP peering has gained traction and media has since caught on. This articleby a popular online news site garnered 4,000 shares on Facebook and 220 retweets on Twitter. What this says is that people are eager to understand the problem and know about possible solutions, no matter how highly technical they may be.

A few years ago, the National Telecommunications Commission had tried to issue an order mandating telcos and ISPs to peer via the Philippine Open Internet Exchange (PHOpenIX) being operated by the Department of Science and Technology’s (DOST) Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI).

But the country’s incumbent telco and largest ISP PLDT opposed the order, arguing that ASTI may not have the capability to “maintain security and service quality.” Three years hence, the proposal has resurfaced at the recent Senate hearing. This time, second largest telco Globe issued an official statement supporting NTC’s proposal of mandatory peering.

Various studies suggest that peering should not be forced upon ISPs and has to remain voluntary. But there are cases like Italy where government intervened to make peering happen. Regardless of these debates, however, there seems to be an agreement on the benefits of peering to all players involved. And with quality improving and costs decreasing, customers ultimately stand to gain from the invisible handshake among ISPs that is peering.

Below I continue my conversation with Wilson Chua of Bitstop.ph, the first local ISP to peer through the PHOpenIX, the only publicly funded, neutral, and non-profit internet exchange point in the country.

TA: What benefits has Bitstop, as a small local ISP, gained from peering?

Bitstop has saved a lot of bandwidth on both directions of the traffic.

For our hosted clients, we have seen increasing bandwidth going out of our center into the PHOpenIX. This translates to savings of about 35% in outgoing international bandwidth.

For our internet clients, we have seen a huge spike in incoming traffic from YouTube and Google caches served from inside the PHOpenIX. This also translates to savings of about 45% in incoming international bandwidth.

TA: How has your customers benefited from Bitstop peering to PHOpenIX?

They have all benefitted from this with faster access times and more resiliency. However, since most of these network efficiencies occur behind the scene, they may not be aware of what or why this is happening.

Take the case of www.krisaquino.net (website of a local celebrity who’s also the sister of the Philippine president). This website couldn’t be reliably hosted in the Philippines without the support of the PHOpenIX.  The website owners are just happy with the faster connection times, lower bounce rates and longer times on-site of their visitors. Their metrics are achievable because of peering.  But they may not be aware of how PHOpenIX helps to make this happen.

TA: Are there any downsides to peering?

Peering will primarily negatively affect the big international circuit vendors. As peering increases, the amount of international traffic decreases. They will lose short-term international revenues. This sheds some light into why some telcos are hesitant to support local peering.

You see, every bandwidth that is routed to peering exchanges is bandwidth saved from having to transit the international links. See below the speeds listed from the website stats that each of the exchanges published publicly.

  • Korea’ KINX saves about 562 gb EACH SECOND
  • Japan’s JIX saves 250 gb EACH SECOND
  • HongKong’s HKIX saves around 340 gb EACH SECOND
  • Amsterdam’s AMIX saves a whopping 2,800 gb EACH SECOND

And these are the countries that have superfast internet speeds. Do you see the correlation between peering and Internet speeds? Faster local links, less congested international links?

Also when the PHOpenIX increases bandwidth usage to 100 gbps, the projected savings to the Philippines is 100,000 mbps * 100 USD = USD 10 million or about 450 million pesos a month. Let’s peg it at PHP 0.5 billion a month. This does not even count the collateral, downstream benefits to the rest of Philippine society yet.

Continued from Part 1 – “To peer or not to peer”: A conversation with Bitsop.ph

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